Exam 3 Extra Credit

$40.00

For an extra ten points on your Exam 3:

Choose a topic from the chapters we covered in Exam 3 and write a 2 page report. The report must be single spaced and include references. (MLA notation required)

 

Exam 3 Study Guide
Chapter 9
 Landforms
o Continents‐ mountains, plateaus, plains
o Oceans‐ trenches, mid ocean ridges
o Tectonic forces‐ folds, faults, mountains
o Erosive forces‐ valleys, canyons, floodplains
 Crustal Deformation
 Types of Stress
o Compressional
o Tensional
o Shear
 Types of deformation
o Elastic
o Fracture
o Plastic
 Folds vs Faults
o Anticlines and Synclines
o Different types of fault
 Types of mountains
 Types of Volcanoes
 Hot Spot Volcanism
 Water
o 97% salt 3% fresh water
o 2% frozen 1% fresh in ground and rivers, streams, lakes
o Tiny amount in water vapor
o Circulation driven by heat and gravity
 The ocean floor
o Features and difference between active and passive
 Ocean
o Average salinity
o Decrease in salinity due to runoff, precipitation, melting glacial ice
o Increase salinity due to evaporation and formation of sea ice
 Surface water
o Infiltration controlled by?
o Drainage basins
 Ground water
o Porosity, permeability
 Types of Glaciers
 Types of water pollution
Chapter 10
 Elements of Weather
 Difference of weather and climate
 Atmospheric Pressure
 Structure of Atmosphere
o Layers
o Temperature changes with altitude in each layer
o Main factor in each layer. (ex ozone is stratosphere)
 Solar Radiation vs. Terrestial Radiation
 Solar Intensity based on latitude
 How does the greenhouse effect work?
 Global climate change.
 Different seasons and what they’re attributed to.
o The different season depending on hemisphere
o Solstices and equinoxes, dates.
 Wind
o Flows from higher pressure to lower pressure
o Named from where they flow from
 Characteristics of warm and cool air
 Local wind circulations
 Global wind circulations and convections cells
o Name of areas, predominant winds, pressure
 Coriolis effect
 Ocean currents
o Gyres
o Factors that influence currents
o Redistribute heat, bring warm weather to otherwise cool areas
 Humidity
o Ratio
o Warm air holds more water vapor than cold air
o Saturation and condensation occur in cold air
o Saturation can occur when air temp drops.
o Dew point
o How clouds form
o Different cloud types and altitudes at which they occur
 Types of Precipitation
 Different air masses
 Cold front vs Warm front
 Stationary and occluded fronts
 Cyclone vs Anticyclone
o Which way does it rotate in northern hemisphere
o Air goes inward or outward
 Types of storms
Chapter 11
 Earthquakes
o How they occur
o New Madrid Earthquake
o Timeframe for prediction
o Measurement
 Moment magnitude vs Richter Scale
 One measures energy other measures ground shaking
 Tsunami
o Where and how are they triggered?
o Where is damage?
o Historical tsunamis
 Volcanos
o As seen before, types of volcanoes
 The ring of fire
o 75% volcanoes and 90% of earthquakes
 Hurricanes
o Threshold of wind
o Can travel thousands of miles over ocean
o The eye of hurricane has calm winds and clear skies and lowest pressure.
o Weakens rapidly after landfall
o Season begins in summer.
o Historical Hurricane landfall (Katrina)
 Ice ages and climate change
Chapter 12
 Earth’s age
o Compare a calendar year to the entire existence of the Earth.
 Relative vs Radiometric dating
o Principles of Relative dating
o Radiometric dating more specific
 Geologic Time
o Separated by large extinctions (changes in life forms)
 Precambrian
o 4.5 billion – 542 million years ago
o Common fossils
o Atmosphere transformation
 Paleozoic Era
o 300 million years
 Six periods characterized by change in life forms and tectonic activity
o Cambrian Period
 542 to 490 Million years ago
 Hard bodied organisms
o Ordovician Period
 490‐443 MYA
 Abundant marine life
o Silurian Period 443‐417 MYA
 Terrestial life
 North America and Europe begin to converge
o Devonian Period 417 – 354 MYA
 Gondwanaland completely formed
 Age of fishes
 Diversification of Fish (lungs… etc)
o Carboniferous Period 354 – 290 MYA
 Swamplands
 Amniote egg
 Appalachians and Ural Mts
o Permian 290 – 248 MYA
 Permian extinction
 Possible due to Volcanism or formation of Pangea lowers sea level
 Mesozoic Era 180 Million years from 248 mYA to 65 mYA
o Periods Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
o Age of Reptiles
o Dominated by Dinosaurs
o Survivors of Paleozoic Era
 Cenozoic Era 65 MYA ‐ Present
o Age of mammals
o Periods‐ Tertiary and Quaternary
o Pleistocene saw emergence of early humans
o San Andreas Fault created

Description

For an extra ten points on your Exam 3:

Choose a topic from the chapters we covered in Exam 3 and write a 2 page report. The report must be single spaced and include references. (MLA notation required)

 

Exam 3 Study Guide
Chapter 9
 Landforms
o Continents‐ mountains, plateaus, plains
o Oceans‐ trenches, mid ocean ridges
o Tectonic forces‐ folds, faults, mountains
o Erosive forces‐ valleys, canyons, floodplains
 Crustal Deformation
 Types of Stress
o Compressional
o Tensional
o Shear
 Types of deformation
o Elastic
o Fracture
o Plastic
 Folds vs Faults
o Anticlines and Synclines
o Different types of fault
 Types of mountains
 Types of Volcanoes
 Hot Spot Volcanism
 Water
o 97% salt 3% fresh water
o 2% frozen 1% fresh in ground and rivers, streams, lakes
o Tiny amount in water vapor
o Circulation driven by heat and gravity
 The ocean floor
o Features and difference between active and passive
 Ocean
o Average salinity
o Decrease in salinity due to runoff, precipitation, melting glacial ice
o Increase salinity due to evaporation and formation of sea ice
 Surface water
o Infiltration controlled by?
o Drainage basins
 Ground water
o Porosity, permeability
 Types of Glaciers
 Types of water pollution
Chapter 10
 Elements of Weather
 Difference of weather and climate
 Atmospheric Pressure
 Structure of Atmosphere
o Layers
o Temperature changes with altitude in each layer
o Main factor in each layer. (ex ozone is stratosphere)
 Solar Radiation vs. Terrestial Radiation
 Solar Intensity based on latitude
 How does the greenhouse effect work?
 Global climate change.
 Different seasons and what they’re attributed to.
o The different season depending on hemisphere
o Solstices and equinoxes, dates.
 Wind
o Flows from higher pressure to lower pressure
o Named from where they flow from
 Characteristics of warm and cool air
 Local wind circulations
 Global wind circulations and convections cells
o Name of areas, predominant winds, pressure
 Coriolis effect
 Ocean currents
o Gyres
o Factors that influence currents
o Redistribute heat, bring warm weather to otherwise cool areas
 Humidity
o Ratio
o Warm air holds more water vapor than cold air
o Saturation and condensation occur in cold air
o Saturation can occur when air temp drops.
o Dew point
o How clouds form
o Different cloud types and altitudes at which they occur
 Types of Precipitation
 Different air masses
 Cold front vs Warm front
 Stationary and occluded fronts
 Cyclone vs Anticyclone
o Which way does it rotate in northern hemisphere
o Air goes inward or outward
 Types of storms
Chapter 11
 Earthquakes
o How they occur
o New Madrid Earthquake
o Timeframe for prediction
o Measurement
 Moment magnitude vs Richter Scale
 One measures energy other measures ground shaking
 Tsunami
o Where and how are they triggered?
o Where is damage?
o Historical tsunamis
 Volcanos
o As seen before, types of volcanoes
 The ring of fire
o 75% volcanoes and 90% of earthquakes
 Hurricanes
o Threshold of wind
o Can travel thousands of miles over ocean
o The eye of hurricane has calm winds and clear skies and lowest pressure.
o Weakens rapidly after landfall
o Season begins in summer.
o Historical Hurricane landfall (Katrina)
 Ice ages and climate change
Chapter 12
 Earth’s age
o Compare a calendar year to the entire existence of the Earth.
 Relative vs Radiometric dating
o Principles of Relative dating
o Radiometric dating more specific
 Geologic Time
o Separated by large extinctions (changes in life forms)
 Precambrian
o 4.5 billion – 542 million years ago
o Common fossils
o Atmosphere transformation
 Paleozoic Era
o 300 million years
 Six periods characterized by change in life forms and tectonic activity
o Cambrian Period
 542 to 490 Million years ago
 Hard bodied organisms
o Ordovician Period
 490‐443 MYA
 Abundant marine life
o Silurian Period 443‐417 MYA
 Terrestial life
 North America and Europe begin to converge
o Devonian Period 417 – 354 MYA
 Gondwanaland completely formed
 Age of fishes
 Diversification of Fish (lungs… etc)
o Carboniferous Period 354 – 290 MYA
 Swamplands
 Amniote egg
 Appalachians and Ural Mts
o Permian 290 – 248 MYA
 Permian extinction
 Possible due to Volcanism or formation of Pangea lowers sea level
 Mesozoic Era 180 Million years from 248 mYA to 65 mYA
o Periods Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
o Age of Reptiles
o Dominated by Dinosaurs
o Survivors of Paleozoic Era
 Cenozoic Era 65 MYA ‐ Present
o Age of mammals
o Periods‐ Tertiary and Quaternary
o Pleistocene saw emergence of early humans
o San Andreas Fault created

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